MGMT 6320 DB Porum 7

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Question 1: Why measure?  How do you operationalize your variables? Why are multiple measures preferred? How does measurement affect reliability and validity? (25 points)

When concepts are used in quantitative research, they must be measured in the form of either dependent or independent variables. Measuring helps to reveal small differences that might be easily overlooked (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Further, measurement gives a consistent yardstick for identifying the small differences. Measurement offers a uniform method of gauging differences to ensure researchers’ consistency over time and the consistency with other researchers (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Besides, measurement facilitates a better prediction of the relationships between the study variables. Since measurements evaluate all the related indicators of a variable, the researcher can capture all the aspects of the concept hence improving the precision of the relationship.

The researcher needs to convert the study concepts to measurable indicators. For instance, if the concept is job satisfaction, they need to capture aspects like motivation and work engagement. One of the ways to operationalize the variables is through questions in an interview schedule or questionnaire (Bryman & Bell, 2018). In such a case, the researcher identifies the items that represent a concept then poses questions that help in measuring the indicators. Another way to operationalize the concepts is through recording of individual behavior through interview schedules (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Through the observation sheet, the observer fills in the indicators on a scale of 1 to 7, for example. Other ways include the use of official statistics or content analysis set to identify the measurable variables (Bryman & Bell, 2018).

Multiple indicator measures recognize there are inherent weaknesses with a single measure, and as such, multiple indicator measure has three advantages over the single indicator measure. A multiple indicator measure offsets the effects of misclassification. A misunderstanding might cause the respondents to misclassify individuals, and if there is only one indicator, the effects would be dire. With the multiple indicator measure, the effect is negated (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Secondly, multiple indicators measure a wide range of aspects that represent the concept. The single indicator measure is too broad and general such that nothing of value might be evaluated. Therefore, the multiple indicator measure presents an opportunity to unpack a concept and understand all the aspects that make it (Bryman & Bell, 2018). The researcher can also make small distinctions with a multiple indicator measure given that the various aspects of the concept are being measured.

How a concept is measured affects the reliability and validity of the study. When the measure is stable over time, it leads to consistent findings hence improving the reliability of the findings. Also, the indicators that make up an index should be consistent so that they are all measuring the same concept (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Further, the way different observers measure the same concept affects research reliability. For example, if both observers are measuring emotional intelligence, it is essential they use consistent indicators and also watch out to ensure their judgment does not affect the measurement (Bryman & Bell, 2018). Measurement contributes to validity since it guarantees that the indicators used to measure a concept covers all the aspects of that concept. For instance, indicators that are drawn from a relevant theory guarantees construct validity.

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