6320 Week 1 Assignment

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  1. What Is Distinctive About Academic Business Research?

Business research as defined by Bell, Bryman, Bryman, and Harley (2015, p.5) is a systematic inquiry that aids in solving business issues and leads to knowledge in the field. The nature of business as a study field has an effect on the way scholars follow the analysis logic. The characteristics of business research is that the field is diverse and focuses on the practice of business, the outcomes, and business contexts. The research extensively draws on knowledge from several science disciplines (like psychology and sociology), economics, mathematics, and philosophy. Second, the logic of research involves the application of chosen generic strategies to the study of specific areas, and considering the body of knowledge that has over the years accumulated in them. This is to say that business research involves specialist areas that cover the range of business practice such as marketing, human resource management, accounting and finance, public sector management, and organization behavior. Third, sometimes researchers may not be automatically given the access to investigate management practice. Business managers in most cases allow scholars to investigate the business where they can see the personal learning value that the study offers them. Lastly, the business discipline-linked dynamics combine with factors that are common in other social disciplines. This implies that what counts as knowledge is widely questioned and that social sciences are integral methods of informing and understanding research.

  1. What contextual factors affect the practice of business research and researcher’s choice of methods?

The contextual factors affecting the practice of business research and the researcher’s choice of methods include practical factors, theoretical factors, ethical factors, and the nature of the study topic. According to Bell et al. (2015, p. 18), every social research should be undertaken within the practical restraints of the real world. This means that business researchers should strategize, gather, analyze, and publish data within practical factors. These factors entail elements such as the cost of the research, the time that it will take to carry the research, required funds, as well as research opportunities such as personal skills, access to the respondents, and the researcher characteristics. Theoretical factors include reliability, validity, intepretivism and positivism, and representativeness. Positivists use quantitative research methods and are mostly concerned with representativeness and reliability, while Interpretivists choose qualitative methods with their main concern being validity. Ethical factors, on the other hand, include the concerns that researchers have regarding to the impacts the research has on the people involved in the process.  Thompson (2016) argue that ethical business research should acquire informed consent, ensure the research is legal, guarantee confidentiality, and certify that respondents are not subjected to any danger. All these factors should be linked to the research benefits. Lastly, the nature of the research topic should be considered since some topics rely on certain methods and ignore others.

Below is a figure that makes it easy to understand the factors:

(Thompson, 2016).

  1. Your Applied Project (as well as all research you do in your doctoral program) will follow the process of business research. It is important to understand this process and how to implement this process. Analyze each step of the process. (For example, why is a literature review important and how should it be structured?, Why is theory development important?, How should a research question be written?, How do we sample and how does this affect our data collection, data analysis, and our conclusions?)

Below is a discussion on the process of business research:

Step 1: Topic Selection

According to Bryman and Bell (2015, p.21) when starting a business research, selecting the topic and developing the primary research question and objectives is important. Selecting the research question is a delicate step as an unsuitable question or topic can result to irreversible challenges, therefore, it should be carefully dealt with.

Step 2: Literature Review

A literature review mainly includes critical reading, assessing, and organizing the existing literature on the chosen business topic to evaluate the nature of knowledge in that particular study area. Bryman and Bell (2015, p.28) advises that reading widely informs the research on other important factors and alerts them of whether a similar study was previously carried out.

Step 3: Developing Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

During the literature review, the researcher should continually develop and perfect the theoretical and conceptual framework. Step 3 is an essential part of a business research process and is crucial in alerting the researcher on any potential challenges or issues before they occur. According to Bell et., al (2015, p.57), the theoretical framework is the approach that underpins the study, while the conceptual framework organizes and defines the concepts that are deemed necessary for the study.

Stage 4: Clarifying the Research Question

The first three stages in most cases become a circular process in which the previously identified research question(s) are selected, investigated, and mostly rejected for several reasons like a lack of enough focus, issues in defining and measuring the necessary concepts, or project is considered unfeasible in relation to resources, access, and complexity. Once an appropriate question has been identified, then the rest of the research becomes easy as it is founded on answering that specific question.

Step 5: Research Design

After ascertaining the research question, stage 5 considers two issues: The data to be collected to answer the question and the best method to collect that data.

Stage 6: Data Collection

In this stage, the researcher should be aware of the data to collect and the best method to use. They should deliberate on the methodology to select as well as the method to be used within that methodology.

Step 7: Data analysis and the Findings Discussion

In this stage, the collected data is analyzed to give answers to the research question. According to Bryman and Bell (2015, p.36), data analysis methods should be linked to the research objectives or hypothesis. In discussing the findings, the researcher should make reference to Stage 2; for instance whether the findings support the literature.

Step 8: Drawing the Conclusion

This step should be linked to the research question. In this case, the research question/questions answers should be clarified. The researcher should also evaluate their success in achieving the study objectives. In addition, they should state the strengths and weakness of the study, study limitations, and make recommendations for future research.

  1. Select on topic from the list of choices below. Find 4 empirical articles on your chosen topic from peer reviewed journals. A list of top Management Journals are found in your syllabus. Please complete a summary for each article. Directions for completion of the summaries are found below. You will use these articles to write a literature review in week 3. Therefore, do not simply choose the first four articles you find, but rather find four articles that can be synthesized into a thoughtful paper. Therefore, it might take you awhile to find four appropriate articles. All work should follow APA writing style and be written with high standards.

Four Empirical Articles on Relationship between Personality (the Five Factor Model of Personality) and Job Performance

Alsuwailem, A., & Abou Elnaga, A. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between Personality        and Job Performance: New Approach. International Journal of Business and           Management Invention ISSN Online, 5(12), 2319-8028. Retrieved from             https://www.ijbmi.org/papers/Vol(5)12/F05124353.pdf

Alsuwailem and Abou Elnaga purpose of carrying out the study was to investigate the relationship that exists between personality and job performance. The study of personality psychology and how it relates to organizational performance has been a frequent topic of study in a number of fields such as industry, medicine, and agriculture for a long time (Janssens et.al., 2019, p.33). Alsuwailem and Abou Elnaga in their literature review explain how previous studies have tried to explain the question that many organizations find difficult to answer which is how to differentiate performers and non-performers. The answer is linked to the type of personality exhibited by the employees in this case the five factor personality model with the factors being neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion,  and conscientiousness.

The research is qualitative. The study by Alsuwailem and Abou Elnaga is descriptive based on collected data and result analysis from reports, books, periodicals, and reports linked to the topic to help investigate the study objective.

The authors concluded that human resource managers should look for ways to hire people according to their skills and personality traits. Therefore, the efficiency and productivity in job performance will improve if personality and psychological characteristics of the individuals are considered. From their analysis, managers should consider people’s conscientiousness when hiring. The five factors all play a part in determining how a person will perform in an organization.

Yahaya, A., Yahaya, N., Bon, A. T., Ismail, S., & Noor, N. M. (2012). The Relationship   between Big Five Personality with Work Motivation, Competitiveness and Job        Satisfaction. Elixir Psychology, 44, 7454-7461. Retrieved from             https://www.elixirpublishers.com/articles/1350892171_44%20(2012)%207454-    7461.pdf

According to the authors, the Big Five personality has been widely scrutinized following claims that it is very descriptive to offer a theoretical personality model. The main objective of their study was to study the level at which demographic and personality variables lead to job satisfaction, competitiveness, and motivation as described by measuring work satisfaction and motivation as well as employees personality.

Mróz, J., & Kaleta, K. (2016). Relationships between Personality, Emotional Labor, Work           Engagement and Job Satisfaction in Service Professions. International Journal of             Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 29(5), 767-782. Retrieved from             https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Justyna_Mroz/publication/304991354_Relatio            nships_between_personality_emotional_labor_work_engagement_and_job_satisfact            ion_in_service_professions/links/577fbd9708ae5f367d3700d6.pdf

The authors used a number of literature sources that have been used to address the roots and outcomes of work performance. Researchers on the topic in looking for the factors that lead to employee success in organization have analyzed factors linked to employees’ personality traits and job characteristics. The objective of the research by Mroz and Kaleta was to study the relation between personality traits and job satisfaction, work engagement, and emotional labor among service workers.

The type of research is quantitative. Mroz and Kaleta study was founded on a cross-section, personal-report survey on a sample size of 137 employees who represented several service industries based in Poland (Mróz & Kaleta, 2016). Every participant was given a set of questionnaires and a demographic data sheet to help in the study.

The results of the study revealed the existing relationship between the surveyed variables. The variables for this study were personality, emotional labor, work engagement, and job satisfaction. Nevertheless, the regression analysis results discovered that not all personality traits were linked to individual factors of work performance. The conclusion made by the authors was that individual personality traits play a major role in influencing functioning at work.

The researchers used a conceptual framework to carry out the study. The research reveals that job status and conscientiousness are both vital predicators of work satisfaction. A realization that people’s differences have an impact on the success of an intervention can highly contribute to the creation of operative job reorganization schemes that are well suited to the personnel they seek out to benefit ( Yahaya et.al., 2012, p.7458). The authors made remarks on the importance of a conducive work environment whereby they cited that it improves job satisfaction and increases employee motivation.

Rothmann S. & Coetzer E. (2003). The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance.   Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29 (1), 68-74. Retrieved from            https://www.ianrothmann.com/pub/psyc_v29_n1_a9.pdf

The objective of Rothamann and Coetzer research was to study the connection between the performance of employees and their personality dimensions in a pharmaceutical group. Previous studies have studied the relationship between job performance and personality in industrial psychology. Job performance defines how well workers perform tasks as well the initiative considered and resourcefulness in solving work issues. Scholars approve that personality measures can be grouped according to the five-factor personality model, which include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Wolff & Kim, 2012).

The type of research is quantitative. The specific design used for the study was cross-sectional. The sample included employees of a pharmaceutical group with 16 hospital pharmacies and 14 retail pharmacies. The authors carried out a statistical analysis using the SAS program. The independent variables used in the study were the Big Five personality dimensions.

The study revealed that the Big Five personality dimensions were connected to creativity and task performance. The results concluded that pharmaceutical companies should in future put into considerations employees’ personality dimensions when predicting managerial performance and creativity during career development and the selection process (Rothmann & Coetzer, 2003, p.72).

The authors highlighted a number of limitations; they did not use predictive validity design, which could have had an impact of the magnitude of the obtained correlation coefficients; the sample size used a large number of females which shows that the outcomes could not be generalized to males’; and the chosen research design does not allow an individual to define the direction of the obtained relationship.


Alsuwailem, A., & Abou Elnaga, A. (2016). Exploring the Relationship between Personality and             Job Performance: New Approach. International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN Online, 5(12), 2319-8028. Retrieved from             https://www.ijbmi.org/papers/Vol(5)12/F05124353.pdf

Bell, E., Bryman, A., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2015). Business research methods. Oxford:        Oxford University Press. Retrieved from             https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=l7u6BwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Busine            ss+research+methods&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjo_avfmLziAhXwUxUIHa__CRcQ 6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=Business%20research%20methods&f=false

Bryman & Bell (2015). Business Research Models. Oxford Press. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/327158557/Business-Research-Models-Bryman-Bell

Janssens, H., De Zutter, P., Geens, T., Vogt, G., & Braeckman, L. (2019). Do Personality Traits   Determine Work Engagement? Results From a Belgian Study. Journal of occupational         and environmental medicine, 61(1), 29-34. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001458

Mróz, J., & Kaleta, K. (2016). Relationships between personality, emotional labor, work engagement and job satisfaction in service professions. International journal of          occupational medicine and environmental health, 29(5), 767-782. Retrieved from             https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Justyna_Mroz/publication/304991354_Relationship            s_between_personality_emotional_labor_work_engagement_and_job_satisfaction_in_ser            vice_professions/links/577fbd9708ae5f367d3700d6.pdf

Rothmann S. & Coetzer E. (2003). The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance.   Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29 (1), 68-74. Retrieved from            https://www.ianrothmann.com/pub/psyc_v29_n1_a9.pdf

Thompson K. (2016). Factors Affecting Choice of Research Methods. Retrieved from


Wolff, H. G., & Kim, S. (2012). The relationship between networking behaviors and the Big        Five personality dimensions. Career Development International, 17(1), 43-66.      https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431211201328

Yahaya, A., Yahaya, N., Bon, A. T., Ismail, S., & Noor, N. M. (2012). The Relationship between            Big Five Personality with Work Motivation, Competitiveness and Job Satisfaction. Elixir     Psychology, 44, 7454-7461. Retrieved from             https://www.elixirpublishers.com/articles/1350892171_44%20(2012)%207454-7461.pdf

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